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正文: 最新英语四级模拟试卷《二》 Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes)

1. 每年,高校许多大学生受到鼓舞去贫困地区支教。2. 支教活动的意义。 3. 我的看法。
提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡1上。
Aid--Education in China Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning、(15 minutes)

For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage. Will We Run Out of Water?
Picture a “ghost ship” sinking into the sand, left to rot on dry land by a receding sea. Then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewing them across towns and villages.
Seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? For people living near the Aral sea (咸海、in Central Asia, it’s all too real. Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate (provide water for、farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding (使搁浅、ships on dry land. The seawater has tripled in salt content and become polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.
Similar large--scale efforts to redirect water in other parts of the world have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerous environmental groups. But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. Why? People in many parts of the world are desperate for water, and more people will need more water in the next century.
“Growing populations will worsen problems with water,” says Peter H.Gleick, an environmental scientist at the Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment, and Security, a research organization in California. He fears that by the year 20xx, as many as one--third of the world’s projected (预测的、8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.

WHERE WATER GOES
Only 2.5 percent of all water on Earth is freshwater, water suitable for drinking and growing food, says Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project in Amherst, Mass. Two--thirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers (冰山、and ice caps (冰盖、. In fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is part of the water cycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation (rain or snow、.
Some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and some becomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. Much of this renewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the Amazon river basin in Brazil, where few people live. In fact, the world’s population has access to only 12,500 cubic kilometers of freshwater—about the amount of water in Lake Superior(苏必利尔湖、. And people use half of this amount already. “If water demand continues to climb rapidly,” says Postel, “there will be severe shortages and damage to the aquatic (水的、environment.”

CLOSE TO HOME
Water woes(灾难、may seem remote to people living in rich countries like the United States. But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater. Groundwater accumulates in aquifers (地下蓄水层、,layers of sand and gravel that lie between soil and bedrock. (For every liter of surface water, more than 90 liters are hidden underground.、Although the United States has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities are tapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish(补充、it. In northwest Texas, for example, overpumping has shrunk groundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to Postel.
Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution. Drinking water in the United States is generally safe and meets high standards. Nevertheless, one in five Americans every day unknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria and chemical wastes, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In Milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tap water tainted with cryptosporidium (隐孢子虫、,a microbe (微生物、that causes fever, diarrhea (腹泻、and vomiting.

THE SOURCE
Where so contaminants come from? In developing countries, people dump raw (未经处理的、sewage(污水、into the same streams and rivers from which they draw water for drinking and cooking; about 250 million people a year get sick from water borne (饮水传染的、diseases.
In developed countries, manufacturers use 100,000 chemical compounds to make a wide range of products.Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes. (Certain compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (多氯化联二苯、,or PCBs, have been banned in the United States.、
But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. People often pour household cleaners, car antifreeze, and paint thinners (稀释剂、down the drain; all of these contain hazardous chemicals. Scientists studying water in the San Francisco Bay reported in 1996 that 70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste.
Farmers have been criticized for overusing herbicides and pesticides, chemicals that kill weeds and insects but insects but that pollute water as well. Farmers also use nitrates, nitrogen--rich fertilizer that helps plants grow but that can wreak havoc (大破坏、on the environment. Nitrates are swept away by surface runoff to lakes and seas. Too many nitrates “over?enrich” these bodies of water, encouraging the buildup of algae, or microscopic plants that live on the surface of the water. Algae deprive the water of oxygen that fish need to survive, at times choking off life in an entire body of water.

WHAT’S THE SOLUTION?
Water expert Gleick advocates conservation and local solutions to water--related problems; governments, for instance, would be better off building small--scale dams rather than huge and disruptive projects like the one that ruined the Aral Sea.
“More than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have access to basic clean drinking water,” says Gleick. “There has to be a strong push on the part of everyone—governments and ordinary people—to make sure we have a resource so fundamental to life.”

1. That the huge water projects have diverted the rivers causes the Aral Sea to shrink.
2. The construction of massive dams and irrigation projects does more good than harm.
3. The chief causes of water shortage are population growth and water pollution.
4. The problems Americans face concerning water are ground water shrinkage and tap water pollution.
5. According to the passage all water pollutants come from household waste.
6. The people living in the United States will not be faced with water shortages.
7. Water expert Gleick has come up with the best solution to water—related problems.
8. According to Peter H. Gleick, by the year 20xx, as many as of the world’s people will suffer from water shortages.
9. Two thirds of the freshwater on Earth is locked in .
10. In developed countries, before toxic chemicals are released into rivers and lakes, they should be treated in order to avoid . www.tommyzablan.comPart ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth、(25 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
If our society ever needed a reading renaissance(复兴、, it’s now. The National Endowment for the Arts released “Reading at Risk” last year, a study showing that adult reading (47) have dropped 10 percentage points in the past decade, with the steepest drop among those 18 to 24. “Only one half of young people read a book of any kind in 20xx. We set the bar almost on the ground. If you read one short story in a teen—ager magazine, that would have (48) ,” laments a director of research and analysis. He (49) the loss of readers to the booming world of technology, which attracts would—be leisure readers to E—mail, IM chats, and video games and leaves them with no time to cope with a novel.
“These new forms of media undoubtedly have some benefits,” says Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad Is Good for You.Video games
(50) problem—solving skills; TV shows promote mental gymnastics by
(51) viewers to follow complex story lines. But books offer experience that can’t be gained from these other sources, from (52) vocabulary to stretching the imagination. “If they’re not reading at all,” says Johnson, “that’s a huge problem.”
In fact, fewer kids are reading for pleasure. According to data (53) last week from the National Center for Educational Statistic’s long—term trend assessment, the number of 17—year—olds who reported never or hardly ever reading for fun
(54) from 9 percent in 1984 to 19 percent in 20xx. At the same time, the
(55) of 17—year—olds who read daily dropped from 31 to 22.
This slow but steady retreat from books has not yet taken a toll on reading ability. Scores for the nation’s youth have (56) constant over the past two decades (with an encouraging upswing among 9—year—olds.. But given the strong apparent correlation between pleasure reading and reading skills, this means poorly for the future. Section B

Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

There is a new type of small advertisement becoming increasingly common in newspaper classified columns. It is sometimes placed among “situations vacant”, although it does not offer anyone a job, and sometimes it appears among “situations wanted”, although it is not placed by someone looking for a job, either. What it does is to offer help in applying for a job.
“Contact us before writing your application”, or “Make use of our long experience in preparing your curriculum vitae or job history”, is how it is usually expressed. The growth and apparent success of such a specialized service is, of course, a reflection on the current high levels of unemployment. It is also an indication of the growing importance of the curriculum vitae (or job history), with the suggestion that it may now qualify as an art form in its own right.
There was a time when job seekers simply wrote letters of application. “Just put down your name, address, age and whether you have passed any exams”, was about the average level of advice offered to young people applying for their first jobs when I left school. The letter was really just for openers, it was explained, everything else could and should be saved for the interview. And in those days of full employment the technique worked. The letter proved that you could write and were available for work. Your eager face and intelligent replies did the rest.
Later, as you moved up the ladder, something slightly more sophisticated was called for. The advice then was to put something in the letter which would distinguish you from the rest. It might be the aggressive approach. “Your search is over. I am the person you are looking for”, was a widely used trick that occasionally succeeded. Or it might be some special feature specially designed for the job interview.
There is no doubt, however, that it is increasing number of applicants with university education at all points in the process of engaging staff that has led to the greater importance of the curriculum vitae.

57 The new type of advertisement which is appearing in newspaper columns .
A、informs job hunters of the opportunities available
B、promises to offer useful advice to those looking for employment
C、divides available jobs into various types
D、informs employers of the people available for work

58 Nowadays a demand for this specialized type of service has been created because .
A、there is a lack of jobs available for artistic people
B、there are so many top?level jobs available
C、there are so many people out of work
D、the job history is considered to be a work of art

59 In the past it was expected that first job hunters would .
A、write an initial letter giving their life history
B、pass some exams before applying for a job
C、have no qualifications other than being able to read and write
D、keep any detailed information until they obtained an interview

60 Later, as one went on to apply for more important jobs, one was advised to include in the letter .
A、something that would distinguish one from other applicants
B、hinted information about the personality of the applicant
C、one’s advantages over others in applying for the job
D、an occasional trick with the aggressive approach

61 The curriculum vitae has become such an important document because .
A、there has been an increase in the number of jobs advertised
B、there has been an increase in the number of applicants with degrees
C、jobs are becoming much more complicated nowadays
D、the other processes of applying for jobs are more complicated
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