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正文: 最新英语四级模拟试卷《三》 Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes)

1. 表达你对Lawrence的想念之情;2. 介绍中国的春节;3. 邀请Lawrence和你们一起过春节。
A Letter to Lawrence
September 23, 20xx
Dear Lawrence, Yours,
Yuan Chao
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning、(15 minutes)

For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.
Computer Crime
A computer crime is generally defined as one that involves the use of computers and software for illegal purposes. This doesn’t mean that all the crimes are new types of crime. On the contrary, many of these crimes, such as embezzlement of funds, the alteration of records, theft, vandalism, sabotage, and terrorism, can be committed without a computer. But with a computer, these offenses can be carried out more quickly and with less chance that the person responsible for the crime will be discovered.
Computer crimes are on the rise and have been for the last twelve years. Just how much these computer crimes cost the American public is in dispute, but estimates range from ?$3 billion to ?$5 billion annually. Even the FBI, which attempts to keep track of the growth or decline of all kinds of crimes, is unable to say precisely how large a loss is involved; however, it estimates that the average take from a company hit by computer crime is ?$600,000. A number of reasons are given for the increase in computer crime: (A、 more computers in use and, thus, more people who are familiar with basic computer operation; (B、 more computers tied together in satellite and other data—transmission networks; and (C、 the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.
The Criminal
Movies and newspaper stories might lead us to believe that most computer crimes are committed by teenage “hackers”—brilliant and basically good children who let their imagination and technical genius get them into trouble. But a realistic look at the crimes reveals that the offender is likely to be an employee of the firm against which the crime has been committed, i.e., an “insider”.
Difficulty of Detection and Prevention
Given the kind of person who commits a computer crime and the environment in which the crime occurs, it is often difficult to detect who the criminal is. First of all, the crime may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone discovers it.
Second, once the crime has been revealed, it is not easy to find a clear trail of evidence that leads back to the guilty party. After all, looking for “weapons” or fingerprints does not occur as it might in the investigation of more conventional crimes.
Third, there are usually no witnesses to the computer crime, even though it may be taking place in a room filled with people. Who is to say if the person at the next terminal, calmly keying in data, is doing the company’s work or committing a criminal act?
Fourth, not enough people in management and law enforcement know enough about computer technology to prevent the crimes. Authorities have to be familiar with the computer’s capabilities within a given situation to guard against its misuses. In some large cities, such as Los Angeles, police departments have set up specially trained computer crime units.
But even when an offender is caught, the investigators, attorneys (律师、, judges, or juries may find the alleged crime too complicated and perplexing to handle. More attorneys are specializing in computer law and studying the computer’s potential for misuse.
After a computer crime has been discovered, many companies do not report it or prosecute (起诉) the person responsible. A company may not announce the crime out of fear that the pubic will find out the weaknesses of its computer system and lose confidence in its organization. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities (脆弱性) because they rely heavily on customer trust.
To avoid public attention, cautious companies will often settle cases of computer tampering out of court. And if cases do go to trial and the offenders are convicted, they may be punished only by a fine or light sentence because the judge or jury isn’t fully trained to understand the nature and seriousness of the crime.
Not all companies are timid in apprehending computer criminals. For example, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company decided it had to get tough on violators. So when the company discovered that one of its computer technicians had embezzled ?$200,000 by entering false benefit claims, it presented it findings to the state’s attorney and aided in the prosecution of the technician. The technician was found guilty and sentenced to prison, not just for the computer misuse, but also for grand theft and insurance fraud. Connecticut General now has a policy of reporting all incidents of theft or fraud, no matter how small.

1. The FBI knows exactly how large a loss is involved in computer crimes.
2. It has become easy for microcomputer owners to use huge mainframe data bases.
3. It is implied in the Paragraph 3 that most computer criminals are the employees of the concerned companies.
4. Many companies don?t report computer crimes because law procedures against computer crimes usually cost a lot of money.
5. When computer crime takes place in a room filled with people, there are usually many witnesses to the crime.
6.The passage is mainly about the increase of computer crimes in America and the difficulties in combating computer crimes.
7. Computer crimes are on the rise because more cheap microcomputers are available.
8. According to the passage, computer crimes has been on the rise for the
last years.
9. Connecticut General Life Insurance company is cited as of companies that took serious measures to fight against computer crimes.
10. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities because they place too much reliance on . www.tommyzablan.comPart ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes) Section A

Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel(47) about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We’re (48) with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity(肥胖、. Perhaps the(49) to this ambivalence(矛盾情结)lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop(经济作物、 wasn’t eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more (50) ways of doing it.
The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation’s food has come to be
(51) by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country’s most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.
Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation’s defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sit?ins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political(52) .
But strong opinions have not brought (53) . Americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. We have becom(54) of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.
The(55) in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It’s no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage(束缚). It’s what we eat—and how we(56) it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today. Section B

Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A、,B、,C、 and D、 .You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative sense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing absolute scarcity; but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity of resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.
The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society’s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ultimately be taken into account.
In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this relationship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs, in turn, depends on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up correspondingly.

57 What does this passage mainly discuss?
A、The scarcity of manufactured goods. B、The value of scarce materials.
C、The manufacturing of scarce goods. D、The cost of producing shoes.

58 According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an item?
A、The amount of time and money spent in producing it.
B、The opportunities a person has to buy it.
C、The value of what could have been produced instead.
D、The value of the resources used in its production.

59 According to the passage, what is the relationship between production and resources?
A、Available resources stimulate production.
B、Resources are totally independent of production.
C、Production increases as resources increase.
D、Production lessens the amount of available resources.

60 What determines the price of a good in a market economy?
A、The cost of all elements in production. B、The cost of not making other goods.
C、The efficiency of the manufacturing process. D、The quantity of materials supplied.

61 Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society as defined in the passage?
A、 A family buying a dog. B、Eating in a restaurant instead of at home.
C、 Using land for a house instead of a park.
D、Staying at home instead of going to school.
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