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正文: READING COMPREHENSION   Question 1-10   The agricultural revolution in the nineteenth century involved two things: the invention of labor-saving machinery and the development of scientific agriculture. Labor-saving machinery naturally appeared first where labor was scarce. "In Europe, said Thomas Jefferson, "the object is to make the most of their land, labor being abundant: here it is to make the most of our labor, land being abundant. It was in the United States, therefore, that the great advances in nineteenth-century agricultural machinery first came.   At the opening of the century, with the exception of a crude plow, farmers could have carried practically all of the existing agricultural implements on their backs; by 1860, most of the machinery in use today had been designed in an early form. The most important of the early inventions was the iron plow. As early as 1790 Charles Newbold of New Jersey had been working on the idea of a cast-iron plow and spent his entire fortune in introducing his invention. The farmers, however, were not interested in it, claiming that the iron poisoned the soil and made the weeds grow. Nevertheless, many people devoted their attention to the plow, until in 1869 James Oliver of South Bend, Indiana, turned out the first chilled-steel plow.   1.What is the main topic of the passage?   (A) The need for agricultural advances to help feed a growing population   (B) The development of safer machines demanded by the labor movement   (C) Machinery that contributed to the agricultural revolution   (D) New Jersey as a leader in the agricultural revolution   2.The word "naturally" in line 3 is closest in meaning to   (A) unsurprisingly   (B) gradually   (C) apparently   (D) safely   3. The expression "make the most of" in line 4 is closest in meaning to   (A) get the best yield from   (B) raise the price of   (C) exaggerate the worth of   (D) earn a living on   4. Which of the following can be inferred from what Thomas Jefferson said (line 3-5)?   (A) Europe was changing more quickly than the United States.   (B) Europe had greater need of farm machinery than the United States did.   (C) The United States was finally running out of good farmland.   (D) There was a shortage of workers on United States farms.   5.The word "here" in line 4 refers to   (A) Europe   (B) United States   (C) New Jersey   (D) Indiana   6. What point is the author making by stating that farmers could carry nearly all their tools on   their backs.   (A) Farmers had few tools before the agricultural revolution.   (B) People in the United States were traditionally self-reliant.   (C) Life on the farm was extremely difficult.   (D) New tools were designed to be portable.   7. When was the iron plow invented?   (A)In 1790.   (B) In the early 1800 s.   (C) In 1869.   (D) In the early 1900 s.   8. According to the passage, which of the following statements about Charles Newbold is true?   (A) He was James Oliver s assistant.   (B) He was born in Europe.   (C) He was opposed to scientific agriculture.   (D) He spent his own money to promote his invention.   9. The word "it" in line 12 refers to   (A) scientific agriculture   (B) James Oliver s invention   (C) the cast-iron plow   (D) Charles Newbold s fortune   10. Why did farmers reject Newbold s plow?   (A) Their horses were frightened by it.   (B) They preferred lighter tools.   (C) It was too expensive.   (D) They thought it would ruin the land.
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Question 41-50   If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation —— conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner, the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.   The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.   Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.   A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, seawater directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.   In the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.   4l. What does the passage mainly discuss?   (A) The elements of salt   (B) The bodies of water of the world   (C) The many forms of ocean life   (D) The salinity of ocean water   42. The word "this" in line 5 refers to   (A) ocean   (B) evaporation   (C) salinity   (D) crystals   43. According to the passage, the ocean generally has more salt in   (A) coastal areas   (B) tropical areas   (C) rainy areas   (D) turbulent areas   44. All of the following are processes that decrease salinity EXCEPT   (A) evaporation   (B) precipitation   (C) runoff   (D) melting   45. Which of the following statements about the salinity of a body water can best be   inferred from the passage?   (A) The temperature of the water is the most important factor.   (B) The speed with which water moves is directly related to the amount of salt.   (C) Ocean salinity has little effect on sea life.   (D) Various factors combine to cause variations in the salt content of water.   46. The word "altered" in line 16 is closest in meaning to   (A) determined   (B) changed   (C) accumulated   (D) needed   47. The world "it" in line 18 refers to   (A) sea ice   (B) salinity   (C) seawater   (D) manner   48. Why does the author mention the Weddell Sea?   (A) To show that this body of water has salinity variations   (B) To compare Antarctic waters with Arctic waters   (C) To give an example of increased salinity due to freezing   (D) To point out the location of deep waters   49. Which of the following is NOT a result of the formation of ocean ice?   (A) The salt remains in the water.   (B) The surrounding water sinks.   (C) Water salinity decreases.   (D) The water becomes denser.   50. What can be inferred about the water near the bottom of oceans?   (A) It is relatively warm.   (B) Its salinity is relatively high.   (C) It does not move.   (D) It evaporates quickly.
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